The Criminal Role of Saudi Arabia and UAE

Mahmoud Refaat

War crimes and crimes against humanity have been perpetrated by the belligerents in Libya and continue to make victims. It is necessary to conduct thorough investigations into the actions of Haftar and his seconds, who participated in massacres of civilians, such as in Tarhunah. These individuals must be prosecuted and convicted.


2.4 Libyan Army Seizes Weapons Supplied by UAE

The Libyan army in the Middle East confiscated the weapons delivered by the government of the United Arab Emirates. In the past three days, the Haftar Ennes Kani militia liberated the capital of Trihun, the strategic city of Talina.

The Libyan army Ankara (ANKAR) will seize on Friday Weapons, ammunition and vehicles purchased by the UAE for the warlord Khalifa Haftar (Khalifa Haftar). It is well known that the Libyan army announced in the past 72 hours that it had completely liberated the capital Tripoli and the strategic city of Taruna from the Haftar militia.

The UAE is one of several countries that supports the Haftar militia against the legitimate government of Libya along with Egypt and Russia. The government forces seized the FN-6 portable air defense missile system, also known as MANPADS, SPG-9 recoilless anti-tank gun, Kornet anti-tank missiles, and Grad mortars and missiles.

The troops also captured mortars, howitzers, missiles, anti-aircraft guns and artillery. According to government reports, dozens of tanks, armored vehicles and weapons depots were confiscated in Tarun.

Tarhuna is an important supply center for the militia at Al Yufra Air Base. The Libyan army announced the complete liberation of the capital Tripoli on Thursday.

The “Peace Storm” operation was launched to stop attacks on the capital, and the recent reconstruction of strategic locations including the Alvadia Air Base, which dealt a heavy blow to Haftar’s forces. Or because Haftar’s forces launched a military offensive, the long-term political agreement failed.

2.6 U.A.E. Boosted Arms Transfers to Libya to Salvage Warlord’s Campaign, U.N. Panel Finds

According to a confidential UN report, the UAE has increased its supply to Libyan commander Khalifa Haftar this year in order to circumvent the arms embargo as the Gulf states try to save the leader’s military campaign and control The influence of its regional competitor Turkey.

A diplomat who received an undisclosed report said that as Haftar tried to prevent the collapse of his internationally recognized Libyan government in Tripoli, the number of US military flights increased.

2.7 Stop selling US weapons to Saudi Arabia

The war in Libya is the war in the United States. Saudi Arabia spent a lot of money to buy weapons in the United States and launched a war that killed nearly a quarter of its population. This is the worst humanitarian disaster in our lives.

The American government started a war. According to the International Peace Research Institute, the United States has sold weapons and tanks to the United Arab Emirates. The report stated that Saudi Arabia is the UAE’s largest importer

of weapons. In the first five years of the Libya War (2015-2019), the defense team has grown by 130% compared to the past five years, although the United States and the entire United Kingdom are worried about Saudi Arabia.

From 2015, Washington and London continue to export weapons to Saudi Arabia until 2019. Year: 73% of Saudi Arabia’s arms imports came from the United States, while the United States accounted for 17%.

Arms send to Saudi Arabia & UAE are 4 billion. Between 2014 and 2020, the United States agreed to sell more than $64.5 billion in weapons to Riyadh, an average of $10.7 billion per year. As time passed, the war with the United Arab Emirates escalated.

They ended the war in early 2015, interrupting military, diplomatic, and intelligence support to the Saudi Arabia-led coalition that blocked Yemen and launched deadly air strikes on civilian targets.

Austin proposed not to support the Saudi campaign because it might fail. In addition, It has not been get the attention. It would be helpful to learn more about Obama early in the campaign. Discuss military management. Who assist Abu Dhabi and Riyadh?

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo firmly believes that the Saudis can win, but this will be a huge setback for the Iranians who support Zayed’s Shiite Houthi rebels.

By appointing Zayed to lead the government. There were foreign terrorists last week. Socialist organization. Iran is the victor of this Great War.

As the war progressed, the Houthis got closer and closer to Iran, and Iran’s influence on Sana’a was greater than six years. The supply of missiles and drones allowed the Houthis to attack Riyadh and other targets in Saudi Arabia.Allies of the Iraqi militia can also attack Riyadh.

The pro-Iranian Iraqi group responsible for the drone attack in Riyadh represents the escalation of sectarian violence in the region. Furthermore. Yemen & Libya war cost Saudi Arabia and UAE a huge fortune.

Take concrete steps to end the war; reduce all military deliveries to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the 10th and 11th places; Italian weapons buyers; more than 12,000 missiles were sent to Saudi Arabia; candidate candidate Joe Biden (Joe Biden) Biden) and other countries have pledged to take action to end the United States.

This is a commendable move. His government temporarily suspended arms sales to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, including the sale of F-35 fighter jets to Abu Dhabi for $35 billion.

These are the right decisions and must be permanent. President Biden announced the termination of support for the “offensive” operations in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

Does this also mean the end of the blockade? What are the main causes of malnutrition in Yemen? Saudi drones and anti-aircraft missile systems continue, but will support for missile battery air strikes end? The cordon killed five people.

The UN Security Council will pass a new resolution calling for urgent international efforts. As a special representative with many years of experience in the region, this is a good step. It is time to end the massacre.Stop Yemen’s arms race in the Middle East.

3 United Nation Role in Libya

The United Nations has been in Libya since 1950 with many agencies, funds and programmes gathered under a Country Team (UNCT). The United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMI) is a United Nations frontline mission established after the civil war in Libya.

UNSMI is a political mission, not a military one. The key elements of a specific mission of the United Nations include supporting the Libyan Transitional Authority in “post-conflict efforts”, mediating the implementation of Libyan political agreements, supporting important Libyan institutions, and monitoring and reporting on human rights.

3.1 UN Aims

UNSMI’s initial mission was determined by the United Nations in 2011. Its main mission is to assist the Libyan Transitional Authority, including the Libyan National Transitional Council, in “post-conflict efforts” to establish rule of law institutions.

In 2009-2011, the mission of UNSMI was more formally defined in the following sense: the United Nations decided to establish the United Nations Assistance Mission in Libya (UNSMI) under the guidance of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, with a term of three Months, and decided that UNSMIL’s mission will be to support and assist Libya’s national efforts in the following areas:

(a) Restore public security and order, and promote the rule of law;

(b) Develop inclusive political dialogue and promote national reconciliation, and implement the electoral and constitutional process;

(c) Strengthen state power, including strengthening responsible emerging institutions and restore public services;

(d) Promote and protect human rights, especially those belonging to vulnerable groups, and support transitional justice;

(e) Take necessary immediate actions for economic recovery;

(f) Coordinate the assistance that other multilateral and bilateral actors may request as appropriate.

In 2016, the mandate scope has been expanded to include mediation in the implementation of the 2015 Shirat Agreement between Libyan transitional institutions competing for political power.

Other elements of UNSMIL’s mandate are the support of important Libyan institutions and the monitoring and reporting of human rights. Under the guidance of the United Nations Political Affairs Division, UNSMIL’s mandate is extended annually from 2019 to September 15, 2020.

3.2 UN Action

In September 2018, UNSMIL reported 22 injuries and 48 deaths in conflicts among political groups in Libya. In July 2019, UNSMIL boss Ghassan Salameh proposed a three-point plan (ceasefire, holding an international conference to implement the existing and internal arms embargo in Libya) as a preventive measure.

A new stage in the Libyan peace process aimed at resolving the second civil war in Libya. In October 2020, Stephanie Williams conducted extensive consultations with Libyan society, including meetings with the mayors of Libya in western, southern and eastern Libya to prepare for the Libyan Political Dialogue Forum (LPDF).

The UN general Reported that Libya conflict has entered a new phase in which foreign intervention and mercenaries presence are “unprecedented” among oil-producing countries. Since the fall of NATO, Libya has been in chaos.

The division has been in existence since 2014, the internationally recognized government controlling the capital of Tripol in the northwest, while military leader Khalifa Haftar rules East from Benghazi.

The governments of Egypt and Russia support the eastern general on one hand, and the official government is supported by Turkey on other hand which is part of its broader strategy as a major player in the Mediterranean.

3.3 Divided Country

This oil-rich country is still divided between the United Nations-recognized National Agreement (GNA) and the self-proclaimed Libyan National Army (LNA) government, which attacked the capital Tripoli in April 2019.

A month later, the bombing of Tripoli ended, when Tarhouna was recaptured by ANC forces. When Mr. Guterres observed the current troubled truce in the city of Sirte, where hostile forces were at war and civilians were scattered among them, he insisted that he was “encouraged” by the cessation of the past few months, appearing as a statement completely disconnected from reality.

In addition, he welcomed Prime Minister Selay and Speaker of the House of Representatives (supporting the left-wing coalition) Aguilar Saleh’s proposal to resolve the conflict peacefully after calling for a ceasefire.

3.4 Potential Response by UN Chief

In separate statements, the two parties also called for lifting the oil blockade and resuming the political process.

The Secretary-General of the United Nations continued, and then called on “all parties” to participate in the activities of the United Nations in a constructive and cooperative manner, calling for a cessation in “the next few weeks” for the military clashes.

He said before announcing his resignation to add momentum to the dialogue. On September 13, the eastern government of the country and Prime Minister Serraj announced their intention to transfer power at the end of October.

Guterres said these measures may help “establish a process for the restoration of sustainable peace, stability and development in the country.” In the last round of negotiations in August, the two sides discussed about the security and military issues in the future of the country.

The security of the military zone and the responsibility for the future security of oil facilities were also mentioned as a principled preoccupation.


Mahmoud Refaat is an expert in international law, politician and writer. Refaat is the president of the European Institute for International Law and International Relations in Brussels, Belgium.








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