The Criminal Role of Saudi Arabia and UAE

Mahmoud Refaat

War crimes and crimes against humanity have been perpetrated by the belligerents in Libya and continue to make victims. It is necessary to conduct thorough investigations into the actions of Haftar and his seconds, who participated in massacres of civilians, such as in Tarhunah. These individuals must be prosecuted and convicted.


3.5 Future of Libya

Meanwhile, it has been defined in summit that Libya parties’ priority was to settle peace. Guterres insisted that the end of the conflict is still the “top priority” of the organization, adding that the hostilities have “been going on for too long, and today we have the opportunity to reaffirm our commitment to end.”

It is important to notice the UN participation in the Libya Conference in Berlin in January 2020. Renown representatives from major regional and sub-regional organizations also participated in this high-level meeting. Algeria, Libya, Niger, Chad, Tunisia, Sudan, South Africa and Morocco also attend the meeting.

The main goal of the summit was to “reaffirm the participants’ commitment to the Berlin Conference’s conclusions and emphasize the role of the United Nations in promoting political, economic and security dialogue on Libyan property” and the commitment of the international community to bring peace in the country.

According to the UN Ministry of Political Civilian Victims in Libya, the “peaceful solution to reaffirm the Libyan conflict” dropped sharply to minus 19 between June 2020 and September 2020, according to UNSMI at least between April and June.

There were 358 hostilities for the ultimate parties, and the acting director of UNSMI has repeatedly held Libyans accountable, which is the “core” of any political debate about their future peace process.

He said: “The Libyans want their leaders to take responsible and constructive actions in the national interest in order to reach a consensus on a comprehensive political solution, which will restore democratic legitimacy.

3.6 The Humanitarian Catastrophe Ignored by the UN

The humanitarian catastrophe of the ongoing crisis in Libya has been ignored by the UN. The Ne in September 2017, only one focused on the violence that divided Libya.

The actions of The Times only emphasized the recent reorganization of the US government’s decision on foreign military affairs. Eric Schmidt’s article quoted the Pentagon’s Africa Command as saying that the U.S. military launched six “precision strikes” against government exercises. Since Donald Trump took office, 17 militants have been killed in the first air strike on the land of Libya in the “conflict-ridden North African country“.

Two articles in the Libya Times in September 2017 discussed the Trump administration’s travel ban that affected Libyans, but not only. On the one hand, it is about Libyans seeking asylum in Germany just to find “hate”; on the other hand, it is about threats of racism and violence.

One could also compare the current media coverage of Libya with the time before the NATO military operation that led to the tragic death of Libyan President Muammar Gaddafi.

In February 2011 alone, just one month before the United States, Britain and France began bombing the country to overthrow Gaddafi, the New York Times published more than 100 articles on Libya.

An editorial on February 24, 2011 confidently stated: “If there is no way to stop him, Gaddafi will destroy hundreds or even thousands of people who desperately want to remain in power.” Here is the genuine dictator’s enemy.

A few months after the flood of violence in the country due to the Western powers, the same newspaper also published an incisive story by senior journalist Rod Nordland entitled “There are more martyrs in Libya than dead bodies“.

Where is the dead?” he asked, referring to the charges of conspiracy to kill Gaddafi. No evidence of such murder has been found anywhere in the country. This outburst of violence is currently happening in Libya and is unlikely to be reported in the corporate media.

On August 28, 2017, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and the head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Libya, Ghassan Salame, told the Security Council on the first night in the capital, Tripoli: “I fell. Continuous and intermittent. The shot fell asleep.

According to him, due to sporadic armed conflicts, several “civilians” across Libya were killed or injured. Thousands of people have also been detained for long periods of time, and many of them have been deprived of their right to a fair trial.

Libya is currently almost under anarchy. An UN-led initiative led to the Libyan Political Agreement and the December 2015 National Agreement (GNA) so-called government, which brought together two “governments” during the war: the Council of Representatives (elected in 2014) and the Islamic General Assembly of the National Assembly (GNC). GNA has been recognized by the United Nations and internationally. However, their powers remain unclear and limited.

The capital of Tripoli, the GNC sanctuary, continues to be violent and divided. The GNA component is still vying for power, legality, and control over state resources and infrastructure. Despite being set up by an international power, the GNA is struggling to legitimize its position. No actor today can claim to have national influence.

Libya’s oil production reached 1 million barrels per day in early October 2017. Reported by Salman, the “predator’s impression now firmly entrenched in the political economy is obvious, as if the country is using its own resources to feed its crisis, benefiting the disappointment of a few and many.

On June 28, 2017, when the convoy of United Nations staff was attacked by militants with guns and grenade launchers in the country, Sararam reported: “The active presence of the Islamic State is associated with terrorism related to Al Qaeda”.

Organizations, foreign fighters and mercenaries, the cross-border economy of the underworld and the people around them, these numerous issues extend beyond Libya and affect its neighbours and the entire international community. However, this is not the headline news in the mainstream American media.

In June, UN investigators reported that terrorists, militants, mercenaries and guerrillas were shooting improvised explosive devices at residential areas where two “governments” and many civilians were killed and injured in the country.

Furthermore, the arbitrary detention and torture of journalists and activists by Haytham al-Tajouri, the commander of the Tripoli Revolutionary Brigade, is also common. Armed groups affiliated with the National Rescue Government have been implicated in several kidnapping and torture cases.

With the support of these big groups and their foreign supporters, the near-anarchist violence has killed thousands of people. Of the approximately 6 million newly born Libyan population, an estimated 435,000 have been displaced.

After two weeks of clashes, September ended with reports of 26 deaths and 170 injuries from hostile armed groups in the city of Sabrata.

In October, CNN reported on the slave trade in Libya: photos of black Africans were auctioned, each selling for about US$400.

These images prompted the President of the African Union (AU), Alpha Comte, and the President of Guinea, to demand prosecution for crimes against humanity. He condemned the revival of “despicable” trade “from another era.”

3.7 Why is there no Action?

After the humanitarian disaster that occurred after the death of Gaddafi, why does the world not pay attention to Libya? Previous year, Human Rights UN commission reported that the Libya detained approximately 8,000 people without any trial.

Today, black immigrants are often abused and executed without trial in some cases. Last year, a report made by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights found that more than 9,000 peoples were detained without any form of trial.

This work does not report facts from improvised camps of isolated militias, but from a facility operated by the police, to the knowledge of the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of the Interior against Illegal Immigration.

It is now clear that those who overthrew Gaddafi want to change the regime without being prepared for all the consequences that this includes.

The recent Security Council resolution on Libya adopted on September 14 emphasized the need to reaffirm its support for NTC, “NTC is the only legal government in Libya, with Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj serving as Presidential Councilor.

The Security Council’s firm commitment to Libya’s sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and national unity“, this country was one of the most influential African countries before the revolution in 2011, transforming Libya into the most insecure and fragmented country in Africa.

The African Union played a role in unifying the organization. In foreign affairs in March/April, Ivo Daalder (Ivo Daalder), then U.S. Ambassador to NATO, and James Stavridis, NATO’s supreme commander in Europe, will describe NATO’s actions in Libya as “a model intervention that can’t be defended”, civilians are caught in the inevitable genocide.

Indeed, this is a cautionary story for the humanities as said the British journalist Simon Jenkins, who hailed NATO as a “couch strategist and round bomber“.

3.8 Role of African Union

The current problems in Libya have raised questions about the role of the AU, Libya having played a major role beforehand.

When NATO bombed Libya in July 2011, Mauritanian Foreign Minister Hamadi Ould Baba Ould Hamadi briefed the UN Security Council on the position of the African Union.

Mr. Hamadi talked about “the unspeakable suffering of the Libyan people” and then described the AU’s Road map for peace, and to “immediately end all hostilities”.

Cooperation between the relevant authorities in Libya to promote effectively humanitarian assistance to people in need -protect foreigners, including African migrant workers living in Libya- and adopt and implement necessary policy reforms to address the root causes of current conflicts.

The AU roadmap usually serves as a security director. The meeting file was shelved.” The African Union can do more to resolve the Libyan crisis.

The efforts aimed at promoting peace, security and stability in Africa led by the Ministry of Peace and Security have been supported by the leaders Commissioner Smail Chergi from Algeria (the country has historically played an important role in regional mediation work).

The current regime in Libya has less emotional or verbal attachment to the AU than Gaddafi, but experts believe that despite being a major influent power in Libya, the company remains in a unique position to respond to more active participation in the crisis of which consequences are felt in many neighbouring countries in the Sahel and even in West Africa.


Mahmoud Refaat is an expert in international law, politician and writer. Refaat is the president of the European Institute for International Law and International Relations in Brussels, Belgium.



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