Mohammad Salih Alzawahreh

2.2 The impact of international interventions in Libya on the continuation of internal conflicts

In the aftermath of the end of Gaddafi’s rule, Libya has been heavily affected by international interventions in various fields such as politics, economics, and security. These interventions have led to internal disputes and further deterioration of the economic, political, and security situation in the country.

The main objective of these foreign interventions is to bring about changes in the power structure in the country or influence the policies and positions of the current government. However, these efforts often reach a dead end and countries confirm their insistence on achieving their goals.

The foreign interventions have also contributed to the emergence of various intelligence networks that have negatively impacted Libyan security. These networks serve the interests of their respective countries and can be observed in the stirring of tribal strife among different tribes, supporting one party against another among the revolutionary formations, and through propaganda and media manipulation.

The ongoing conflict in Libya has also affected other aspects such as the economy, military, and social structure of the country. Countries and various groups involved in the Libyan scene have also used money as a means to influence decision-makers in the country and internationally, resulting in changing loyalties. The conflict in Libya is largely managed by regional and international capitals rather than the Libyan cities themselves.

2.2.1 Effects of international intervention

Foreign interventions in the internal affairs of Libya have had a significant impact on the country’s military institution, obstructing its role in maintaining national security and sovereignty. The emphasis on tribal loyalties has overshadowed the importance of the army and police, leading to regionalization and fragmentation of political parties.

This has resulted in the exclusion of national parties that resist foreign interference. Additionally, foreign interventions have resulted in the violation of the arms embargo, with illegal weapons spreading throughout the country and being accessible to outlaw militias. This is a clear violation of international law and has been documented in official and unofficial reports.

Furthermore, these interventions have consistently undermined peace efforts, as the conflicting countries’ interests in influencing Libya have not left room for reconciliation. Despite attempts to appear as mediators in the media, the reality of their involvement in the crisis remains.


The author of this study has attempted to explore the root causes of the Libyan crisis that began in 2011, following the end of the rule of the late Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi. They argue that the most prominent feature of the situation in Libya after the Gaddafi era was the weakness of state institutions and the presence of many armed groups outside of the control of the government.

These armed groups have become a major rival to the internationally recognized Government of National Accord and have also been used by various international powers to support one side of the conflict against the other.

The study notes that Libya has witnessed a very dangerous political and security situation, characterized by the emergence of a conflict between the Government of National Accord and the forces of General Haftar, who do not recognize the legitimacy of the Government of National Accord.

The ongoing conflict has led to numerous battles and clashes between the two sides, each with their own forces and supporters, which has only served to perpetuate the conflict and undermine efforts towards national reconciliation.

The interests and interventions of countries in Libya have varied according to their own interests. For example, the study notes that Turkey, through its support for the Government of National Accord, has sought to strengthen its international position, particularly in the Mediterranean region. Similarly, countries such as the US, UK, France, and Russia have sought to control Libyan oil in order to further their own strategic and economic interests.

The study concludes that the conflicts and disputes that Libya has been witnessing since 2011 between the Government of National Accord and General Haftar’s forces are a direct result of the deteriorating political, economic, and security conditions in the country. It argues that the Libyan revolution in 2011 has served as a focal point for internal disputes and conflicts in Libya, which has made it increasingly difficult to find a solution that can satisfy all parties to the conflict.

The study also highlights the negative impact of international intervention, which has fueled old tribal and regional conflicts and has had a negative impact on the overall situation of the public scene in Libya, characterized by instability and insecurity.


The study recommends the following:

  • a. The Government of National Accord should have developed its military capabilities and won the trust of the Libyan society by working to improve the economic, political and social level of the members of the Libyan society, and thus this would have positively affected the support for the internationally recognized Government of National Accord.
  • b. The Arab countries should have held periodic meetings to discuss the reality of the Libyan crisis and to come up with recommendations that would bridge the points of view between the parties to the conflict and reach a solution that would guarantee the return to normal life in Libya.
  • c. The Libyan government should have rejected any international interference in its internal affairs, given the importance of this in preventing the fueling of the conflict that these countries sought to implement their various interests in Libya.
  • d. It had been obvious the need to exploit the audio-visual media to broadcast the national spirit in Libya through national programs aimed at ending the conflict and uniting under the Libyan national flag.
  • e. The Libyan government should have studied the extent of international interference in Libya and the most prominent interests arising from this intervention and should have rejected any presence of this interference by resorting to the United Nations.
  • f. The international community should have held more discussions under international auspices between the parties to the conflict in Libya in order to reach appropriate solutions to the conflicts taking place on the Libyan arena.


Mohammad Salih Alzawahreh – M.A of conflict resolution – University of Jordan


Source: Journal of Political Science and Law – Issue # 35 – March 2023 – The Democratic Arabic Center

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