Under Gaddafi, the month of April has seen some of the worst abuses of human rights in Libyan history.

Starting with arrests of suspected political party members in 1973, and executions of military officers in 1975, the madness of the Gaddafi regime culminated into reserving April for persecution of Libyan students and other dissidents, inside and outside Libya.

Since April 7, 1976, Gaddafi licensed his Revolutionary Committees to persecute university students suspected of opposing his regime.  April 7th was commemorated in Libyan universities annually, with arrests and public executions of students. In some cases, the killings followed years of imprisonment without trial.

April was also an active month for Gaddafi’s  “physical liquidation” campaign against Libyan dissidents abroad. Many Libyan civilians were assassinated in Europe and the Middle East- see examples below.

A number of April Victims are listed below. The list includes students, teachers and other civilian professionals, who were murdered by the Gaddafi regime inside and outside Libya. A few of Libya’s modern heroes, too many to lose.

Omar A. Dabboub, 7 April 1977, Benghazi. Teacher. Executed by public hanging, for participating in Jan. ’76 student demonstrations. Gaddafi presided over the execution personally.

Mohammed bin Saud, 7 April 1977, Benghazi, same day as Dabboub. Teacher. Executed by public hanging, for participating in Jan. ’76 student demonstrations. Gaddafi presided over the execution personally.

Mahmoud A. Nafi’, 21 April 1980, London. Attorney, business man. Assassinated in his office in London. Two Libyans tried for the crime and sentenced to life in prison.

Mahmoud Banoun, April 1980, Tripoli. Engineer.  Arrested in early April, died a few days later as a result of torture. His body delivered to family in sealed box.

Abdul Jalil al-‘Arif, April 1980, Rome. Business man, victim of Gaddafi’s campaign of “physical liquidation” of opponents abroad. ‘

Mohammed M. Ramadan, 11 April, 1980, London. Journalist and announcer at BBC, Arabic section. Assassinated by Gaddafi operatives outside Regent Park mosque. Libyan regime refused him burial in Libya and returned the body to be buried in London. Two Libyans were tried for the crime and in Sep. ’80, sentenced to life in prison.

Naji bu Hawiya Khlyif, April 1982, arrested. Student. Died under torture, Aug. ’82, Benghazi.

Ahmed I. Makhluf, April 1982, arrested by Gaddafi security. Student. Died under torture, Aug. ’82, Benghazi.

Mohammed M. Hfaf, 7 April 1983, Tripoli. Student. Imprisoned in April ’73, accused of membership in Islamic Liberation Party. Ten years later, on 7 April ’83, executed by hanging in College of Engineering, Tripoli.

Abdallah A. al-Mesallati, April, 1984, Tripoli. Student. Arrested on April 16, 1973, charged with  membership in Islamic Liberation Party, sentenced to prison. Retried by Revolutionary Courts, sentenced to death, and executed in Tripoli Central Prison.

Abdul Aziz al-Gharably, April, 1983, arrested. Student, Tripoli. Suspected of membership in political party. Died in Jan. ’84 as a result of torture and lack of medical care.

Rasheed M. Ka’bar, 16 April 1984, Tripoli. Student. Arrested in Nov. ’80, following unrest at the College of Engineering. Accused of being follower of Sheikh Bishti (Mosque leader, tortured and killed by A. Zadma and Revolutionary Committees.) . Sentenced to death by Revolutionary Committees, and executed at the College of Pharmacy, Tripoli. University students forcefully gathered to view execution.

Hafed. al-Madani, 16 April 1984, Tripoli. Student. Arrested following unrest at Engineering College, Nov. ’80. Executed by public hanging at the College of Agriculture, Tripoli.

Mustafa R. an-Nuwairy, April, 1984. Student. Elected President of Student Union, academic year 1975-76. Elected Secretary of Benghazi chapter of Student Union. Expelled from Benghazi University  and arrested in 1976. Arrested again in 1980 and sentenced to death and executed by the Revolutionary Committees in front of university students and staff.

Hasan A. al-Kurdi, April 1984. Arrested among hundreds in Spring ’73. In June, accused with nine others of membership in Islamic Liberation Party and of writing articles opposing the regime. On 7 Dec. ’73, the Revolutionary Council issued resolution to stop the courts and release the accused. Re-arrested on the same day and held without trial until  Feb. ’77, sentenced to 15 years in prison, days later, the sentence increased to  life imprisonment. Executed in prison without trial, April 1984.

Ahmed Rafeeq al-Barrani, 3 April 1985, Cyprus. Business man. Assassinated in his office.

Jibril A. ad-Dinali, 6 April 1985, Former police officer. Member of NFSL, shot by Gaddafi agents in Bonn, Germany. 


References: al-Inqadh Magazine, Vol. 10, Issue No. 37, September 1991, Pages 80-105, published by National Front for the Salvation of Libyan (NFSL).

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